Citation Formats & Tools

When and What do I Cite?

Cite anything you write or create that uses or refers to the ideas of another person.

You do need to cite:

  • Direct quotations
  • Paraphrasing of passages
  • Indebtedness to another person for an idea
  • Use of another student's work
  • Use of your own previous work

You do not need to cite:

  •  Information that is common knowledge

Plagiarism

When you include someone else's work as part of your work, you have to acknowledge them. This is true whether you are quoting them directly or just using one of their ideas. If you don't acknowledge them, you are plagiarizing, or stealing their work. This is a form of academic dishonesty and can have serious consequences as detailed in the University of Missouri Collected Rules & Regulations section on Student Conduct. The Purdue Online Writing Lab explains and gives examples of the right way to use other people's work. The UMKC Writing Center also provides one-on-one peer-tutoring sessions to help with writing.

Style Manuals

APA | Chicago | MLA

Which Style Should I Use?

Now that you know what to cite, you need to know how to cite it. Different disciplines use different citation styles. This guide lists the styles typically used in each displicine. The citation style to use is determined by your professor.

Anthropology
Art and Art History
Art History
Arts Management
Biology
Chemistry
Communication Studies
Communications
Computing and Engineering
Computing Science
Criminology
Education
International Studies
Journalism
Law & Legal Studies
Linguistics
Literature
Mathematics and Statistics
Mathematics
Medicine
Philosophy
Physics
Physics
Political Science
Psychology
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Sociology
Theatre
Theater

Citation Styles in the Sciences